Background and aims Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic and prototypic multisystem autoimmune disease which present with extensive clinical features affecting almost every organs and tissues. At current situation, the exact cause of aetiology remains unknown, however besides genetic, environmental and other hormonal factors, faulty in the immunological system include T- and B-Cell abnormalities and the failure to clear autoantibodies which causes generation of immune complex and disparity in the level of cytokine also have been described in SLE leading to trigger inflammation and induce organ damage. There are various key cytokines been studied and identified to be therapeutic target for SLE.
Methods In the present study, we investigated on the level of IL-25, IL-35, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 among Malaysian Malay female SLE population and the possible association to disease severity leading to lupus nephritis. In the present study, SLE group divided into two categories, one is SLE with Lupus Nephritis (SLE-LN) and one with SLE alone comparing to normal control. ELISA method were used to measure the level of cytokines.
Results From the results, we found that SLE-LN and SLE had the higher level IL-35, IL-25, IL-8 and IL-10 but lower level of IL-5, IL-2 and IL-6 compared to normal control with IL-4 have no detection. IL-5 and IL-2 significantly (p<0.005) inhibited among SLE and SLE-LN while IL-25 significantly elevated in SLE and SLE-LN compared to control.
Conclusions This suggest IL-5 and IL-25 as beneficial marker for SLE disease activity.
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