Table 2

Patient and control employment characteristics

CharacteristicPatients with SLE (at diagnosis)Patients with SLE (current status)Controls (current status)p Value*
Employment status(N=344)(N=344)(N=321)
Employed full time49%24%50%0.01
Student25%9%10%NS
Employed part time16%10%12%NS
Self-employed3%5%7%NS
Not employed, but seeking work3%6%8%NS
Homemaker6%9%10%NS
Not employed and not seeking work9%31%4%0.01
Retired1%6%10%NS
Other4%18%3%0.01
Receiving SS benefits41%4%<0.01
If unemployed, how long? (year)7.2 (SD 6.5)2.2 (SD 2.2)<0.01
Unemployed due to health problems88%15%<0.01
Hours worked in last week (mean)33.3 (SD 16.7)39.1(SD 13.6)<0.01
Sick days/months (mean)2.3 (SD 4.9)0.4 (SD 1.1)<0.01
# Days not able to do full day of housework last month due to health issues7.4 (SD 7.9)1.8 (SD 4.9)<0.01
Absentee time (difference between hours worked and hours expected to work in last 7 days)2.7 h−4.7 hNS
Presenteeism (100%=ideal performance, in last 4 weeks)77%84.6%<0.01
  • NS=p>0.05.

  • *p Value from χ2 test for categorical variables and Student's t test for continuous variable.

  • SLE, systemic lupus erythematous.