Table 4

Concurrent autoimmune diseases or symptoms in Native American patients compared with patients of other races/ethnicities

Native American n=268African-American n=1074European American n=1567Hispanic
n=239
Raynaud’s syndrome, n (%)92 (34)288 (27)
P=0.0186
559 (36)
P=0.7298
67 (28)
P=0.1503
ILD, n (%)4 (1)1 (<1)
P=0.0066
4 (<1)
P=0.0192
1 (<1)
P=0.3766
Sicca, n (%)26 (10)77 (7)
P=0.1604
223 (14)
P=0.0530
19 (8)
P=0.5338
Sjӧgren’s syndrome, n (%)40 (15)84 (8)
P=0.0006
337 (22)
P=0.0140
35 (15)
P>0.9999
Systemic sclerosis,
n (%)
7 (3)8 (1)
P=0.0173
3 (<1)
P=0.0001
10 (4)
P=0.3373
Myalgias, n (%)119 (44)557 (52)
P=0.0341
772 (49)
P=0.1461
134 (56)
P=0.0099
  • Number and percentage of patients with the comorbidity, and P values are shown. Differences in comorbidities were analysed using Fisher’s exact test. Bold P values are significant compared with the Native American group.

  • ILD, interstitial lung disease.