Table 1

Patient demographics and clinical characteristics

CharacteristicsDiabetesHypertensionCataractOsteoporosisAvascular necrosis
Cases
(n=42)
Controls (n=86)Cases
(n=79)
Controls (n=159)Cases (n=132)Controls (n=263)Cases (n=118)Controls (n=231)Cases
(n=38)
Controls (n=76)
Continuous variables, mean (SD)
 Age, years47.1 (11.31)40.3 (11.60)38.2 (12.18)37.3 (12.35)51.7 (12.34)39.9 (11.78)48.5 (12.41)41.3 (12.50)40.6 (11.16)42.7 (12.51)
 Years of education12.5 (2.47)* 13.1 (2.58)13.3 (3.21)†13.8 (2.61)‡13.6 (2.98)§14.0 (2.71)¶13.8 (3.12)** 14.1 (3.08)††13.5 (2.79)‡‡13.4 (3.15)
 Time since SLE diagnosis, years12.8 (6.02)14.5 (6.38)13.8 (6.45)12.6 (5.94)11.7 (6.06)11.9 (6.09)12.2 (6.01)12.8 (5.76)11.6 (6.62)12.4 (6.29)
 Cumulative SLEDAI77.3 (88.36)89.9 (93.20)60.3 (62.90)46.5 (83.76)76.5 (91.68)68.1 (94.37)88.6 (93.64)69.1 (82.86)93.7 (106.78)66.6 (84.77)
 Adjusted mean SLEDAI2.6 (2.01)2.8 (2.35)4.3 (3.29)3.3 (2.82)2.7 (2.12)2.8 (2.62)2.7 (1.98)2.5 (1.92)3.3 (1.84)2.6 (2.26)
 Total cumulative dose of steroids, g10.0 (13.06)10.3 (14.30)7.8 (9.35)6.1 (11.72)9.5 (13.77)7.8 (12.13)10.4 (14.03)8.5 (12.99)11.1 (13.32)8.2 (13.32)
 Steroid-exposed years, total6.4 (5.30)6.4 (5.18)2.8 (2.56)2.7 (2.61)6.0 (5.35)5.3 (4.99)6.0 (4.73)5.9 (4.64)4.5 (4.81)4.8 (4.79)
  At >7.5 mg/day2.3 (2.54)2.7 (2.75)1.4 (1.61)1.6 (2.20)2.4 (3.21)2.0 (2.73)2.4 (2.81)2.4 (2.99)2.4 (2.84)2.4 (3.18)
  At >20 mg/day0.6 (0.84)0.8 (1.02)0.3 (0.22)0.4 (0.60)0.5 (0.54)0.5 (0.50)0.7 (0.76)0.4 (0.40)0.4 (0.52)0.4 (0.26)
 Highest daily steroid dose, mg29.5 (54.84)29.7 (80.05)28.8 (42.46)17.7 (19.51)23.9 (24.36)21.8 (21.64)25.4 (22.08)25.1 (56.54)33.4 (23.97)21.2 (22.05)
 SDI score§§ 1.0 (1.19)1.1 (1.63)0.6 (1.19)0.4 (0.80)1.0 (1.38)0.6 (1.15)1.1 (1.36)0.7 (1.21)0.9 (1.33)0.6 (1.08)
Categorical variables, n (%)
 Gender, female40 (95.2)80 (93.0)74 (93.7)145 (91.2)123 (93.2)239 (90.9)111 (94.1)210 (90.9)28 (73.7)70 (92.1)
 Black21 (50.0)33 (38.4)50 (63.3)61 (38.4)52 (39.4)107 (40.7)29 (24.6)109 (47.2)16 (42.1)26 (34.2)
 White18 (42.9)50 (58.1)27 (34.2)93 (58.5)71 (53.8)140 (53.2)83 (70.3)112 (48.5)20 (52.6)47 (61.8)
 Asian2 (4.8)1 (1.2)2 (2.5)3 (1.9)6 (4.6)8 (3.0)2 (1.7)6 (2.6)1 (2.6)0 (0)
 Other1 (2.4)2 (2.3)0 (0)2 (1.3)3 (2.3)8 (3.0)4 (3.4)4 (1.7)1 (2.6)3 (4.0)
 Ever steroid-exposed33 (78.6)63 (73.3)67 (84.8)113 (71.1)108 (81.8)191 (72.6)96 (81.4)170 (73.6)33 (86.8)55 (72.4)
 Cyclophosphamide or other immunosuppressant in the last 12 months of at-risk time16 (38.1)23 (26.7)21 (26.6)30 (18.9)51 (38.6)74 (28.1)50 (42.4)67 (29.0)19 (50.0)27 (35.5)
 Obesity prior to case date32 (76.2)61 (70.9)58 (73.4)91 (57.2)87 (65.9)164 (62.4)84 (71.2)148 (64.1)31 (81.6)62 (81.6)
 Renal activity prior to case date20 (47.6)48 (55.8)42 (53.2)47 (29.6)57 (43.2)128 (48.7)64 (54.2)105 (45.5)23 (60.5)39 (51.3)
 Renal activity in the last 12 months of at-risk time15 (35.7)17 (19.8)26 (32.9)22 (13.8)18 (13.6)52 (19.8)19 (16.1)29 (12.6)13 (34.2)16 (21.1)
  • *n=41.

  • †n=77.

  • ‡n=156.

  • §n=130.

  • n=262.

  • **n=117.

  • †† n=229.

  • ‡‡ n=36.

  • §§ Excluding case outcome score.

  • SDI, Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index; SLEDAI, SLE Disease Activity Index.