Table 1

Cohort characteristics

Control*
(n=322)
SLE*
(n=437)
Demographic data
 Age (years)48.2 (35.4–58.6)47.2 (34.3–58.0)
 Gender (Female)92%92%
 BMI24.4, n=253 (22.1–27.7)24.0, n=424 (21.4–27.2)
Clinical data
 Disease duration (years)NR10.6 (2.8–20.9)
 SLE criteria†NR6 (5–7)
 SLAMNR6 (4–10)
 SLEDAI-2KNR4 (0–7)
 SLICC48NR1 (0–2)
 BILAG RenalNRA/B: n=42
C/D/E: n=363
 PtGDA (n=132)NR3 (1–7)
 Nephritis ever‡NR41%
 Other chronic disease§Fibromyalgia: n=3
Psoriasis: n=3
Psoriatic arthritis: n=2
Fibromyalgia: n=3
Psoriasis: n=8
Rheumatoid arthritis: n=4
Medication¶
 MethotrexateNR5%
 Hydroxychloroquine**NR38%
 AzathioprineNR17%
 Mycophenolate mofetilNR12%
 Prednisolone††NR39% with pred. dose=0 mg
25% with pred. dose>7.5 mg
  • *Median (25% quantile–75% quantile).

  • †American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria.

  • ‡Nephritis according to ACR criteria.

  • §Chronic disease according to participants self-reported data.

  • ¶Per cent of patients on medication. No patients were on anti-TNF therapy.

  • **The low usage of hydroxychloroquine in this cohort is due to that the inclusion of patients started 2004, that is, at a time when the beneficial effects of hydroxychloroquine were not established.

  • ††Low disease activity (LLDAS) dose of prednisolone set to >7.5 mg as suggested by Franklyn et al.49

  • BILAG, British Isles Lupus Assessment Group, Renal index; BMI, body mass index; NR, not reported; PtGDA, Patients Global Disease Activity; SLAM, SLE Activity Measure; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; SLEDAI-2K, SLE Disease Activity Index; SLICC, Systemic Lupus  International Collaborating Clinics.