Background Administration of cytotoxic and immunosuppressive agents are well established treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus. However, the usage of these drugs shows frequent side effects. Therefore, finding new treatment option are necessary. Mucus secretion from snail (Achatina Fulica) contain glycosaminoglycans including heparan and acharan sulfate, which known to accelerate the inflammatory process and replace the damaged glomerular filtration membrane in renal interstitial fibrosis. This study aimed to determine the effect of snail mucus on levels of heparan sulfate in mice model of lupus nephritis.
Methods Experimental study uses posttest-only group design. The control group was male Balb/C mice injected with 0.5 cc NaCl 0.9% I.P, while mice model of nephritis lupus injected with 0.5 cc Pristane I.P. Nephritis lupus mice grouped into group I (received oral methylprednisolone 0.5mg/kgBW/day), group II (received oral 0.5 cc snail mucus/day) and group III (combination of standard therapy and snail mucus). The treatment administered for 4 weeks. Detection of heparan sulfate on blood serum taken 4 months after therapy. Statistical analysis used anova test and post hoc test.
Results There was an increase in heparan sulfate levels in the snail mucus group (12.13 +1.27 mg/dL; p = 0.277), and the methylprednisolone group (11.79 +0.97 mg/dL; p = 0.230) compared to the lupus group (11.27+1.20 mg/dL). The snail mucus group also showed higher level of heparan sulfate compared to control group, although not statistically significant (p = 0.257).
Conclusions Achatina fulica mucus may increase heparan sulfate level in mice model of lupus nephritis.
Carvalho O, dos S, Teles HM, Mota EM, Mendonça CLGF, de Lenzi HL. Potentiality of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) as intermediate host of the Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes 1971. Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop 2003;36:743–745.
Collins LE, Troeberg L. Heparan sulfate as a regulator of inflammation and immunity. J Leukoc Biol 2019;105:81–92
Dharmezier, Bawazier LA. Diagnosis Dan Penatalaksanaan Nefritis Lupus. Dalam : Simadibrata M, Syam AF, Setiati S, Setyohadi B, Alwi I. (editors). Buku Ajar Ilmu Penyakit Dalam Jilid III Edisi VI. Jakarta : Interna Publishing FK UI; hal 2014;3378–85.
Gesteira TF, Coulson-Thomas VJ, Ogata FT, Farias EHC, Cavalheiro RP, de Lima MA, Cunha GLA, Nakayasu ES, Almeida IC, Toma L, Nader HB. A novel approach for the characterisation of proteoglycans and biosynthetic enzymes in a snail model. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Proteins and Proteomics 2011;1814: 1862–1869
Guilermo J, Alarcon GS, Scofifield L, Reinlib L, Cooper GS. Understanding the epidemiology and progression of systemic lupus erythematosus. Semin Arthritits Rheum 2010;39:257–9.
Kim HJ, Hong Y-H, Kim Y-J, Kim H-S, Park J-W, Do J-Y, Kim K-J, Bae S-W, Kim C-W, Lee C-K. Anti-heparan sulfate antibody and functional loss of glomerular heparan sulfate proteoglycans in lupus nephritis. Lupus 2016;0:1–10.
This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.
Statistics from Altmetric.com
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.