Introduction SLE is a multisystem chronic inflammatory disease and has been associated with premature atherosclerosis and so, controlling classic cardiovascular (CV) risk factors is crucial. Dyslipidaemia is an important CV risk factor and has been found to be altered in SLE patients.
Purpose Compare lipid profiles of two groups of Juvenile SLE patients, without Lupus Nephritis (group 1) and with Lupus Nephritis (group 2). Verify factors that might correlate with abnormalities in lipid profile.
Methods Retrospective analysis of the lipid profile (Total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglycerides) of two groups of patients with juvenile SLE, with and without lupus nephritis (LN), in two points in time, when LN was first diagnosed and 6–12 months after initiating LN treatment.
Statistical analysis was performed using Student t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient test. Significance level was set as <0.05.
Results We included 27 patients with Juvenile SLE, 17 with LN (82,4% Class IV; 17.6% class III). There were no differences between groups in baseline characteristics. Mean present age was 27.1±6.4 years for group 1 (n=10) and 27.6±6.1 years for group 2 (n=17).
Analysis of lipid profile showed higher mean values of TC, LDL and Triglycerides in group 2 at both time points (table 1), however the differences between groups did not reach statistical significance.
On a sub-analysis of group 2, we studied the correlation between lipid profile and proteinuria. No correlation was found at time 1 however, at time 2 a strong positive correlation was found between proteinuria values and TC and between proteinuria and LDL levels (r=0.67, p=0.017 and r=0.74, p=0.009 respectively).
Conclusion Our study shows that Juvenile SLE patients with LN tend to have more abnormalities of lipid profile than patients without LN, namely with higher TC, LDL and Tg, and lower HDL.
A significant positive correlation was found at time 2 between proteinuria and TC and LDL levels, reflecting that the severity of proteinuria correlates with abnormalities in lipid profile.
These results reinforce that juvenile SLE population, namely with LN, should have their CV risk factors, such as lipid profile, carefully monitored.
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