Table 2

Summary of three articles relating lupus and the environment in African-Americans

Author, yearNObjectiveResultsConclusionsLevel of evidence
Carroll et al, 20145180To assess links between environmental exposures and autoimmunityWith more meticulously collected exposure data, chemicals associated with ANA status were identifiedEven with a small sample significant exposure–outcome relationships can be detectedIII
Terrell et al, 200852N/ATo use CBPR practices to educate impacted residents and enable their participation in efforts to get a nearby waste site remediatedThe impacted community was involved in information gathering and analysis and gained necessary skills to assess current conditions and prevent duplication of injusticesCBPR methods were used to empower a community and enable a community-driven remediation plan to be endorsed by the governing agencyIV
Williams et al, 20095313To explore patients' experiences and concerns with their living environment and their perceptions of environmental effects on their health and disease statusParticipants had the perception that there are components in the environment that people come into contact with that are potentially hazardous, and there was a shared concern about the presence of toxic waste in the soil in their communityThe community recognises need for education, environmental change and the impact of public policy on these effortsIII
  • ANA, antinuclear antibodies; CBPR, community-based participatory research; N/A, not available.