Table 8

Five studies of quality of life in African-Americans with lupus

Author, yearNObjectiveResultsConclusionsLevel of evidence
Barnado et al, 201276126To study health-related quality of life in African-American patients with SLE from the Gullah population of South Carolina, which has a homogeneous genetic and environmental background and high prevalence of multipatient families with SLECases had a lower PCS (41.8 vs 52.3, p<0.01), but not MCS (55.0 vs 56.0, p=0.70) compared with related controls. None of the 11 SLE American College of Rheumatology criteria, disease duration or Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Damage Index was associated with either PCS or MCS.The lack of effect of SLE on MCS may be due to disease-coping mechanisms interplaying with cultural factors unique to the GullahIII
Barnado et al, 201477126To compare pregnancy outcomes before and after SLE diagnosis to controls to test whether there is a predisease state that negatively affects pregnancy outcomesThe odds of adverse pregnancy outcomes all increased after SLE diagnosis compared with before diagnosis, even after adjustment for age, years of education, pregnancy number and medical coverage.There may be a predisease state that predisposes to adverse pregnancy outcomesIII
Woods-Giscombé et al, 20107848To develop a preliminary conceptual framework for SWS by exploring women's descriptions of the superwoman role; perceptions of contextual factors, benefits and liabilities; and beliefs regarding how it influences healthAccording to the women in this study, the superwoman role involves sociohistorical and personal contextual factors as well as themes of survival and health status.The SWS framework might be used to enhance future research on stress and African-American women's healthIII
Chae et al, 201579578To examine associations between unfair treatment and disease damage among African-American women with SLEReporting any unfair treatment was associated with greater SLE damage compared with reporting no unfair treatment.Unfair treatment contributes to worse disease outcomes among African-American women with SLE, and unfair treatment attributed to non-racial causes may have more detrimental effects on SLE damageIV
Wallace, 200380N/ATo examine elevated rates of SLE in African-American women in the context of immune cognitionDisease is an internalised physiological image of external patterns of structured psychosocial stress, discrimination and social disintegration experienced by ethnic minorities in the USA.Social and economic reform necessary to decrease disease among African-American women will significantly benefit all groupsV
  • MCS, mental component summary; PCS, physical component summary; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; SWS, superwoman schema.