Table 5

Four studies of traditional chronic disease risk factors in African-Americans with lupus

Author, yearNObjectiveResultsConclusionsLevel of evidence
Formica et al, 20035864 500To prospectively investigated associations of smoking and alcohol consumption with incident SLE in the Black Women's Health Study67 women reported a new diagnosis of SLE and use of appropriate medication for that illness. In multivariate analyses, an increased risk of SLE among smokers was observed, but no effect of alcohol consumption on risk.The inverse association of alcohol consumption with SLE found in studies of prevalent disease may have resulted from women with SLE giving up drinkingII
Williams et al, 200959124To investigate the relationship between carotid atherosclerosis and inflammation in African-American womenTumour necrosis factor-α was significantly related to lupus, hypertension, body mass index and carotid intima media thickness, indicating this could be an important factor to consider in future studies of cardiovascular risk in African-American women with lupus.There may be other factors in the link between SLE and CVDIII
Williams et al, 200860101To characterise the prevalence of traditional CVD risk factors and the markers of subclinical atherosclerosisThere were significant differences between SLE cases and controls in the areas of current smoking (18% of SLE cases, 15% of controls, p=0.01), average fasting glucose (85 mg/dL in SLE cases, 98 mg/dL in controls, p=0.02) and high blood pressure (68% of SLE cases, 42% of controls, p=0.02). SLE cases also showed non-significantly higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lower body mass index.Larger studies are recommended to elucidate non-traditional mechanisms that may modulate some of the increased risk for CVD associated with SLE in womenIII
Liang et al, 200262Determining the biology, risk factors and the prevention of atherosclerosis in individuals with SLENot a great deal is known about the risk factors for SLE in African-Americans, although there are data to suggest that they may not be identical to those seen in Caucasian populations.The study of the best and most effective means to prevent atherosclerotic vascular disease in SLE and in African-Americans with SLE should be a major priorityV
  • CVD, cardiovascular disease; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus.