Table 1

Frailty components and definitions

Weight lossBMI ≤18.5 kg/m2, or self-report that lost ≥10 pounds in the last yearBMI ≤18.5 kg/m2, or self-report of unintentional weight loss in past month (from SLAQ)
ExhaustionSelf-report of either: felt that everything I did was an effort in the last week, or could not get going in the last week (from CESD).Same
Low energy expenditure/inactivityMinnesota Leisure Time Activity Questionnaire, threshold score 90IPAQ, low activity according to IPAQ scoring
SlownessWalking 4 m: Time ≥6.13 s for height ≤159 cm, or time ≥5.25 s for height >159 cmSame
WeaknessGrip strength: ≤17 for BMI ≤23 kg/m2; ≤17.3 for BMI 23.1–26 kg/m2; ≤18 for BMI 26.1–29 kg/m2 or ≤21 for BMI >29 kg/m2Same
  • BMI, body mass index; CESD, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale;31 IPAQ, International Physical Activity Questionnaire;32 ,33 SLAQ, Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire.