Table 4*

Univariable analysis of baseline factors associated with progression of carotid atherosclerosis and clinical cardiovascular events (CVEs)

Baseline factorsPlaque progressionCIMT progressionCVEs
Age-adjusted OR95% CIAge-adjusted
β (SE)
P valuesAge-adjusted OR95% CI
Prior CVEs1.630.145 to 18.270.0059 (0.0035)0.69 4.89 1.15 to 20.65
Disease duration (years)*1.000.95 to 1.05−0.08090 (0.00009)0.391.040.97 to 1.09
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)*0.900.617 to 1.310.19442 (0.0008) 0.03 0.930.51 to 1.6
Hypercholesterolemia4.310.86 to 21.590.07482 (0.00283)0.461.480.22 to 5.86
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)*0.930.58 to 1.60−0.07829 (2.9×10−4)0.410.610.28 to 1.34
Triglycerides (mmol/L)*1.250.61 to 2.55−0.06203 (2.0×10−4)0.18 2.92 1.3 to 6.46
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)*1.010.99 to 1.05−0.17274 (0.00005)0.061.0380.96 to 1.12
Hypertension1.120.43 to 3.23−0.04238 (0.00203)0.53 6.19 1.5 to 25.47
Fasting glucose (mmol/L)*0.720.30 to 1.70−0.10982 (0.00125)0.191.00
Type 2 diabetes0.630.03 to 13.77−0.01446 (0.00754)0.10No events in diabetic groupNA
Smoking ever1.670.0.68 to 3.890.05302 (0.00191)0.550.640.18 to 2.24
Family history of CHD0.450.17 to 1.18−0.07237 (0.00215)0.391.270.34 to 4.7
Body Mass Index*1.020.96 to 1.11−0.11030 (0.00017)0.261.010.93 to 1.14
Metabolic syndrome1.510.53 to 4.30 0.17552 (0.00224) 0.05 2.290.67 to 7.77
Renal disease0.630.165 to 2.300.06337 (0.00156)0.521.830.85 to 3.92
Creatinine (mmol/L)*0.990.99 to 1.000.00325 (0.00002)0.960.990.99 to 1.00
Prior venous thromboembolism1.730.62 to 4.85−0.00251 (0.00291)1.21 4.16 1.08 to 15.9
SDI*1.280.89 to 1.850.18343 (0.00080) 0.04 1.77 1.21 to 19.2
SLEDAI*0.940.77 to 1.140.06239 (0.00040)0.24 1.77 1.15 to 2.62
C3*1.440.0.32 to 6.51−0.03074 (0.00351)0.742.270.23 to 22
C4*1.020.00 to 799.6−0.17369 (0 .00026)0.051.740.5 to 5.95
Ro positive 0.31 0.11 to 0.86 −0.004072 (0.00221)0.921.160.34 to 3.98
La positive 0.45 0.13 to 1.57 0.04982 (0.00276)0.611.400.34 to 5.88
RNP positive0.500.14 to 2.170.05530 (0.00310)0.460.630.07 to 5.49
Anticardiolipin antibody positive 3.64 1.27 to 10.40 −0.08619 (0.00206)0.451.460.23 to 4.99
Lupus anticoagulant positive0.930.36 to 2.41−0.002 (1.191)0.412.110.35 to 12.44
Antimalarial use0.370.09 to 1.53−0.12049 (0.00274)0.19No events is non-use group
Antiplatelet use0.600.23 to 1.59−0.02194 (0.00208)0.760.970.30 to 3.06
Statin use7.390.86 to 63.280.05112 (0.00310)0.761.830.52 to 6.48
Steroid exposure ever1.140.42 to 3.06−0.04302 (0.00227)0.761.360.35 to 8.2
Average steroid dose (mg)*1.030.95 to 1.120.10877 (0.00017)0.21 1.14 1.03 to 1.26
Total steroid dose (mg)*1.000.99 to 1.00−0.00175 (1.1×10−4)0.980.990.99 to 1.00
Cyclophosphamide ever1.930.44 to 8.43−0.00134 (0.00319)0.674 4.2* 1.77 to 35
Azathioprine ever1.100.394 to 3.12−0.00384 (0 .00204)0.0653.300.94 to 11.58
Framingham-based 5-year CVD % risk (only patients with no prior CVD)* 1.47 1.12 to 1.93 −0.000464 (0.00034)0.2621.090.88 to 1.35
  • Items in bold denote significant results on univariate or age-adjusted analyses

  • Denotes baseline factors analysed as continuous variables.

  • CHD, coronary heart disease; CIMT, carotid intima–media thickness; CVD, cardiovascular disease; NA, not applicable; RNP, ribonucleoprotein; SDI, Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics damage index; SLEDAI, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index.