Table 1

Cellular effects of type I IFN that may contribute to the pathogenesis of lupus

Target cellEffects of type I IFNs
NK cellsIncreased cytolytic activity.135
CD4+ T cellsProlonged survival, promotion of Th1/Th10 helper profile, increased IL-12R expression and generation of memory cells.136 137
CD8+ cytotoxic T cellsEnhanced cytotoxicity, inhibition of apoptosis.136
Regulatory T cellsSuppression of Treg activity.136 138 139
Th17 T cellsSkewing of Th cells towards T17 profile and IL-17 production.136 138 139
MacrophagesEnhanced intracellular killing of pathogens and expression of costimulatory molecules.135
Dendritic cellsMaturation, enhanced antigen presentation.136
pDCsEnhanced type I IFN production, homing to lymph nodes.11 140 141
B cellsIncreased plasma cell differentiation, isotype switch and enhanced antibody production, generation of memory cells and imprinting of ISG15 secretion in plasma cells.23 142 143
NeutrophilsRelease of interferogenic oxidised mitochondrial DNA.46
Endothelial cellsInduction of apoptosis, impaired regeneration.144 145
MicrogliaSynaptic pruning.146
  • IFN, interferon; IL, interleukin; NK, natural killer; pDC, plasmacytoid dendritic cell.