Table 2

Changes in PREDICTS biomarkers over 12 weeks according to treatment subgroup

CharacteristicsAny new ISMMFAZAHCQ
6 week/12 weekn=58/50n=16/15n=18/16n=24/19
piHDL baseline1.88±1.222.23±1.321.68±1.011.80±1.29
piHDL 6 weeks1.49±1.161.37±0.811.65±1.151.46±1.39
piHDL 12 weeks1.18±0.91±0.950.93±0.541.60±1.111.03±0.74
P value 0–6 weeks*0.0090.02nsns
P value 0–12 weeks*0.0010.009ns0.05
Leptin (ng/dL) baseline27.9±28.136.3±37.723.4 ±22.325.1±24.2
Leptin 6 weeks31.3±29.245.2±41.126.6±23.929.9±24.9
Leptin 12 weeks31.4±28.039.0±34.825.4±23.229.8±26.4
P value 0–6 weeks*nsnsnsns
P value 0–12 weeks*nsnsnsns
sTWEAK (pg/mL) baseline480.1±512.2477.5±447.1481.0±630.7468.1±469.7
sTWEAK 6 weeks444.1±490.8387.9±376.8435.8±496.7497.2±589.3
sTWEAK 12 weeks464.6±513.2290.3±204.6389.4±475.6467.8±496.1
P value 0–6 weeks*ns0.06nsns
P value 0–12 weeks*ns0.04nsns
Homocysteine (mmol/L)10.3±3.69.9±3.79.1±3.910.0±5.6
Homocysteine 12 weeks9.4±3.38.4±3.009.7 ±3.9
Homocysteine 12 weeks9.7±4.69.4±3.38.4±3.009.7 ±3.9
P value 0–12 weeks*nsnsnsns
SLEDAI baseline7.4±4.88.6 ±7.47.7±3.66.0±3.1
SLEDAI 6 weeks5.3±3.65.8±4.76.17±3.44.3±2.6
SLEDAI 12 weeks4.2±3.34.6±4.65.4±2.82.8±1.9
P value 0–6 weeks*<0.0010.040.070.02
P value 0–12 weeks*<0.0010.010.004<0.001
  • Bold denotes statistically significant values.

  • *Paired t-test.

  • AZA, azathioprine; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; IS, immunosuppressant; MMF, mycophenolate mofetil; SLEDAI, SLE Disease Activity Index; piHDL, proinflammatory high-density lipoprotein; sTWEAK, soluble tumour necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis.