Table 1

Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics

Characteristics at study entryMMF (n=16)AZA (n=18)HCQ (n=25)P value (MMF-AZA)*P value (MMF-
HCQ)
P value (AZA-HCQ)
Demographics and lupus-related history
Age39.9±12.341.8±14.137.8±14.4nsnsns
Non-Caucasian68.8% (11)61.1% (11)70.8% (17)nsnsns
Disease duration8.9±10.17.9±6.78.0±10.2nsnsns
Disease duration ≤2 years43.8 (7)16.7 (3)36.0% (9)nsnsns
Ever GN56.2% (9)22.2% (4)4% (1)0.03<0.001ns
Active GN25% (4)16.7% (3)0ns0.05ns
SLEDAI8.6±7.47.7±3.66.0±3.1nsnsns
Cardiac risk factors
Hypertension50.0% (8)22.2% (4)20% (5)nsnsns
Diabetes6.25% (1)0%4% (1)nsnsns
Tobacco use (ever)25% (4)27.7% (5)28% (7)nsnsns
Dyslipidaemia25% (4)16.7% (3)20.8% (5)nsnsns
Body mass index22.8±9.123.6±14.426.4±5.9nsnsns
HDL (mg/dL)53.0±21.250.3±19.948.4±11.5nsnsns
High PREDICTS‡43.8% (7)27.8% (5)36.0% (9)nsnsns
Medications
Prednisone (mg)15.5±13.316.2±16.94.9±6.9ns0.030.01
Mean predinsone/day
0–12 weeks (mg)
19.2±26.016.6±13.84.4±5.8ns0.050.05
Background HCQ62.5% (10)83.3% (15)0%ns
Background statin6.3% (1)11.1% (2)8.3% (2)nsnsns
  • *Analysis of variance/Tukey’s

  • †Three or more factors PREDICTS or diabetes+1 factor.

  • AZA, azathioprine; GN, glomerulonephritis; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; MMF, mycophenolate mofetil; SLEDAI, SLE Disease Activity Index.