Table 1

Demographics and clinical characteristics14

CharacteristicsLupus (N=64)Control (N=30)P values
Demographics
Age (years)45±1237±11<0.001
Female gender, N (%)56 (88%)29 (97%)0.15
Type-2 DM4 (6%)0 (0%)0.25
Hyperlipidaemia11 (17%)0 (0%)0.02
Hypertension37 (58%)0 (0%)<0.001
Statin use6 (9%)0 (0%)0.12
Race
 Caucasian25 (39%)16 (53%)0.69
 African-American13 (20%)5 (17%)
 Asian6 (9%)2 (7%)
 Other20 (31%)7 (23%)
Ethnicity
 Hispanic27 (42%)10 (33%)0.43
 Non-Hispanic35 (55%)20 (67%)
History
Smoking
 Current tobacco use, N (%)4 (7%)0 (0%)0.22
 Previous smoker, N (%)7 (11%)4 (14%)0.51
Physical activity, N (%)19 (42%)9 (50%)0.90
Lupus history
Disease duration (years)15±12
SLEDAI3.8±3.0
SLICC2 (0–3)
History of thrombotic event13 (20%)
Medications
 Hydroxychloroquine57 (89%)
 Azathioprine16 (25%)
 Methotrexate10 (16%)
 Mycophenolate mofetil19 (30%)
 Prednisone48 (75%)
Clinical parameters
BMI28.4±6.224.1±4.4<0.001
Framingham Risk Score0 (0–1)0 (0–0)0.14
Glucose (mg/dL)90.1±13.092.0±9.40.23
Insulin (mcU/ml)15.0 (9–20)8.0 (6–11)<0.001
HOMA-IR3.3 (1.9–4.6)1.7 (1.4–2.5)0.002
C reactive protein (mg/L)1.6 (0.8–3.9)1.1 (0.7–3.2)0.18
Urine creatinine (mg/dl)110 (66–181)133 (52–166)0.90
Urine protein (mg/dl)32 (18–44)13 (11–17)<0.001
Protein/creatinine ratio0.2 (0.2–0.4)0.1 (0.1–0.1)<0.001
WBC count5.1 (3.9–6.4)5.2 (4.5–6.4)0.53
Neutrophil %61±1256±100.03
  • BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; DM, diabetes mellitus; HOMA-IR, homoeostatic model assessment insulin resistance; SLEDAI, SLE Disease Activity Index; SLICC, Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Committee.