Table 1

Characteristics of three groups: clinical parameters of patients with VZV/UTI and matched background controls at the time of infections or visits

VZV (n=47)Background (n=141)P value (vs VZV)UTI (n=28)P value (vs VZV)
Gender (female, %)97.990.90.141000.44
Disease duration (years)5.26±4.794.99±5.110.757.56±7.060.10
Organ involvement2.36±0.852.28±0.860.562.46±0.740.60
HCQ exposure (%)89.491.50.7892.90.71
Prior daily prednisone*16.45±7.8811.90±7.500.00115.14±6.130.45
Prior IS (%)*63.858.20.5050.00.25
CTX9 (30.0%)9 (11.0%)3 (17.4%)
MMF10 (33.3%)30 (36.6%)5 (34.8%)
CNI2 (6.7%)5 (6.1%)1 (8.7%)
AZA4 (13.3%)13 (15.9%)2 (17.4%)
MTX4 (13.3%)19 (23.2%)3 (13.0%)
Others1 (3.3%)6 (7.3%)0 (0%)
Subsequent daily prednisone*13.62±6.0110.31±6.510.00212.59±4.980.45
Subsequent IS (%)*48.963.90.0942.90.64
  • p values in bold: p<0.05

  • *Prior daily prednisone and IS: medications used during the baseline period until infections/visits; subsequent daily prednisone and IS: medications used before flares within the index period.

  • AZA, azathioprine; CNI, calcineurin inhibitors; CTX, cyclophosphamide; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; IS, immunosuppressive; MMF, mycophenolate mofetil; MTX, methotrexate; SLEDAI, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index; UTI, bacterial infections of the lower urinary tract; VZV, varicella zoster virus.