Table 3

Baseline demographics and complement profiles of normotensive and hypertensive APPLE participants

Normotensive
(N=148)
Hypertensive*
(N=73)
P
a. Baseline demographics
 African American36 (24.3%)21 (28.8%)0.67
 White74 (50.0%)32 (43.8%)
 Mixed/other38 (25.7%)20 (27.4%)
Female, N (%)126 (85.1%)58 (79.5%)0.29
SBP, mean, mm Hg ±SD110.4±11.3117.7±12.52.6×10–5
DBP, mean, mm Hg ±SD64.89±8.9369.4±10.10.0008
BMI kg/m223.69±4.8325.84±6.030.0046
Body weight (kg)60.37±15.5365.37±19.970.043
Height (cm)159.0±9.76157.90±10.690.45
Nephrotic syndrome4 (2.74)33 (45.2)3.9×10–15
Nephritic syndrome26 (17.8)53 (72.6)1.3×10–15
Other kidney disorders7 (5.38)13 (22.0)0.001
C4 protein, mg/dL13.5±6.718.5±8.64.7×10–6
C3 protein, mg/dL95.7±29.0110.7±26.40.0003
Patient number (N)13563
C4T GCN (mean±SD)3.844±0.8363.794±0.7220.68
C4A GCN (mean±SD)2.067±0.7551.825±0.6850.032
C4B GCN (mean±SD)1.778±0.6652.000±0.5680.023
C4L GCN (mean±SD)2.889±1.1822.435±1.0180.0098
C4S GCN (mean±SD)0.970±0.8191.339±0.9220.0054
C3, FF+FS (frequency)0.2370.1750.32
b. A logistic regression model of independent risk factors for hypertension in cSLE
R2/AUCχ2P
Overall0.5097/0.932†120.42.6×10–24
Nephrotic syndrome33.86.1×10–9
Nephritic syndrome28.59.4×10–8
Serum C418.12.1×10–5
BMI14.70.0001
GCN of C4L7.250.0071
  • P values <0.05 are in bold fonts.

  • *Prior or current hypertension per baseline physician documentation.

  • †An alternative model without the inclusion of serum C4 and GCN of C4L yielded R2=0.430 and AUC, 0.905.

  • APPLE, Atherosclerosis Prevention in Pediatric Lupus Erythematosus; AUC, area under curve; BMI, body mass index; C4L, long C4 genes; C4L, long C4 genes; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; GCN, gene copy number; R, correlation coefficient; SBP, systolic blood pressure; cSLE, childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.