Table 1

Characteristics of patients with JA and controls from GLADEL cohort

VariablesJA (n=17)Control (n=51)P valueOR (95% CI)
Age at diagnosis, years (median, IQR)31.0 (12.0)29.0 (14.0)0.590
Follow-up in the cohort, months (median, IQR)69.0 (21.0)57.0 (37.0)0.720
Female gender (n, %)16 (94.1)48 (94.1)1.000
Ethnic group (n, %)
Caucasian10(58.8)36(70.6)0.665†
Mestizo5(29.4)11(21.5)
Afro-Latin American2(11.8)3(5.9)
Others0(0.0)1(2.0)
Residence (n, %)
Urban17 (100.0)48 (94.1)0.567
Socioeconomic status (n, %)
High/high–middle3 (17.6)8 (15.7)0.586
Middle5 (29.4)12 (23.5)
Middle–low/low9 (52.9)31 (60.8)
Education level; years (n, %)
0–77 (41.2)19 (37.3)0.570
8–129 (52.9)24 (47.1)
>121 (5.9)8 (15.7)
Type of social health coverage (n, %)
Public14 (82.4)40 (78.4)0.999
Private3 (17.6)11 (21.6)
Cumulative clinical features, (n, %)
Malar rash11 (64.7)33 (64.7)1.000
Discoid lupus1 (5.9)5 (9.8)0.999
Photosensitivity11 (64.7)31 (60.8)0.773
Oral ulcers9 (52.9)24 (47.1)0.674
Arthritis16 (94.1)43 (84.3)0.432
Pleuritis4 (23.5)8 (15.7)0.477
Pericarditis3 (17.6)8 (15.7)0.999
Neurological disorder8 (47.1)17 (33.3)0.309
Renal disorder7 (41.2)30 (58.8)0.205
Haematological disorder13 (76.5)42 (82.3)0.723
Immunological disorder*1011 (84.6)40 (88.9)0.647
ANA16 (94.1)49 (96.1)0.999
Autoantibodies, (n,%)
Anti-dsDNA6 (35.3)32 (62.7)0.088
Anti-SSA/Ro5 (29.4)14 (27.4)0.999
Anti-SSB/La3 (17.6)6 (11.8)0.680
Antiphospholipid11 (64.7)25 (49.0)0.261
Hypocomplementaemia12 (70.6)33 (64.7)0.657
Raynaud's phenomenon9 (52.9)25 (49.0)0.779
Xerophthalmia and xerostomia6 (35.3)9 (17.6)0.176
Lupus pneumonitis4 (23.5)1 (2.0)0.01215.4 (1.6–149.6)
SLEDAI average at follow-up (median, IQR)*143.83 (4.29)3.33 (5.31)0.606
SDI score (last visit) (median, IQR)2 (4)1 (3)0.647
Mortality at follow-up, (n,%)4 (23.5)7 (13.7)0.447
  • *Missing data.

  • †To calculate the p value, the categories African, Latin American and others were combined.

  • ACR, American College of Rheumatology; GLADEL, Grupo Latino Americano De Estudio del Lupus ; JA, Jaccoud’s arthropathy; SDI, SLICC/ACR Damage Index; SLEDAI, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index; SLICC, Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics.