Table 2

Associations between markers of neutrophil activation and high NLR

BiomarkerOR (95% CI)*P value*OR (95% CI)†P value†
IC (μg/mL)1.4 (1.1 to 1.8)0.0061.3 (1.0 to 1.7)0.02
IFNs (U/mL)1.8 (1.1 to 2.7)0.011.7 (1.1 to 2.7)0.03
LDG (% of PBMCs)1.4 (1.1 to 1.9)0.0051.5 (1.1 to 1.9)0.005
Calprotectin (μg/mL)1.4 (1.1 to 1.9)0.0081.5 (1.1 to 2.0)0.008
  • Bold indicates statistically significant difference.

  • *Univariate logistic regression analysis performed by comparing patients with SLE with low NLR and high NLR. High NLR defined as above the 90th percentile of healthy individuals. Values are log2-transformed for normalisation.

  • †Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for prednisone use (no, low (1–5 mg/day), medium (6–10 mg/day) and high (>10 mg/day)) and immunosuppressive treatment including azathioprine, mycophenolate, methotrexate, ciclosporin and rituximab. Values are log2-transformed for normalisation.

  • IC, immune complex; IFN, interferon; LDG, low-density granulocytes; NLR, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio; PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cells.