Table 3

Baseline features as predictors of phenotype transition from mild or moderate to severe disease

Transition from mild/moderate to severe disease
BaselineUnivariableCIMultivariableCI
Severity at diagnosis (moderate to mild)1.040.62 to 1.76
SDI (0 vs ≠0)1.140.47 to 2.77
Age at diagnosis0.960.95 to 0.991.000.97 to 1.03
Disease duration1.10 (per year)1.07 to 1.141.091.04 to 1.14
Sex (m/f)3.161.35 to 7.394.531.23 to 16.60
Late-onset SLE0.260.12 to 0.590.320.08 to 1.28
Acute cutaneous lupus0.970.57 to 1.64
Renal involvement0.900.23 to 3.48
Neuropsychiatric involvement5.281.54 to 18.076.331.22 to 32.67
Leucopenia0.710.38 to 1.35
Fever2.641.47 to 4.591.710.81 to 3.60
ANA1.370.43 to 4.35
dsDNA2.161.25 to 3.711.890.96 to 3.73
Low complement1.941.10 to 3.391.120.55 to 2.26
Anti-Sm1.850.74 to 4.60
  • Values in bold represent associations that reached statistical significance (p< 0.05).

  • anti-Sm, anti-Smith; dsDNA, double-stranded DNA; m/f, male/female; SDI, SLICC Damage Index; SLICC, Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics.