Table 2

Key features of the six decision-analytic model-based economic evaluations in SLE

StudyCountryTarget populationType of modelPerspectiveType of studyComparatorsResultVOI
Marra et al28CanadaPatients with rheumatological conditions (predominantly SLE and RA)Decision treeThird-party payerCEATwo strategies; full-dose AZA and a genotype test to inform dose of AZAGenotype testing strategy was dominantNo
Mohara et al29ThailandPatients, aged 40 years, newly diagnosed with active, severe lupus nephritis and receiving immunosuppressive therapyMarkov modelSocietalCUAFour strategies; different combinations of IV-CYC, MMF, AZA and induction and maintenance therapies.IV-CYC induction and AZA maintenance was dominantNo
Nee et al30USAPatients with lupus nephritis, between 20 years and 40 years, who responded to induction therapyMarkov microsimulation modelSocietalCUATwo strategies; AZA and MMFMMF had ICER of $6454 per QALY gained relative to AZAPopulation EVPI: $2 058 206
Oh et al31KoreaAdults with moderate to severe RA or SLEDecision treeSocietalCEATwo strategies; weight-based dose of AZA and a genotype test to inform dose of AZAGenotype testing strategy was dominantNo
Specchia et al32Italy50 000 patients with SLE that had active disease and a positive autoantibody testIndividual-level microsimulationItalian health service and societalCEA; CUATwo strategies; BEL with and without SOCBEL and SOC had ICER of €32 859 per QALY gainedNo
Wilson et al33UK10 000 patients with lupus nephritis eligible for induction therapyPatient-level simulationNational Health ServiceCUATwo strategies; MMF with PRED and IV-CYC with PREDMMF with PRED was dominantNo
  • AZA, azathioprine; BEL, belimumab; CEA, cost-effectiveness analysis; CUA, cost-utility analysis; EVPI, expected value of perfect information; ICER, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio; IV-CYC, intravenous cyclophosphamide; MMF, mycophenolate mofetil; PRED, prednisolone; QALY, quality-adjusted life year; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; SOC, standard of care; VOI, value of information.