Table 1

Strategies and evidence level for maximising hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine treatment in CLE

StrategiesEvidence level*
Pre antimalarial treatment considerations
 Smoking cessation2B
 Photoprotection: SPF 70 or greater, sun-protective clothing, UV avoidance1B
 Possible Polypodium leucotomos supplementation5
Medication compliance
 Measure HCQ drug levels after ≥2 months1B
 Full daily doses instead of split doses5
 GI upset: switch to nightly HCQ dosing, titrate HCQ gradually5
  • *Evidence levels adapted from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine.

  • CLE, cutaneous lupus erythematosus; GI, gastrointestinal; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; SPF, sun protection factor; UV, ultraviolet.