Table 2

Univariable and multivariable associations between demographic and clinical SLE characteristics with MetS

Exposure variablesPresence of MetS
UnivariableMultivariable
OR95% CIP valueAdjusted OR(95% CI)P value
Age at diagnosis (years)
 <401.00
 40–602.631.05 to 6.540.042.480.94 to 6.570.07
 >604.670.96 to 22.790.063.820.69 to 21.120.12
Gender
 Female1.00
 Male1.980.63 to 6.220.24
Ethnicity
 Caucasian1.00
 Asian1.120.45 to 2.770.81
 Other1.930.63 to 5.920.25
Smoking at baseline
 No1.00
 Yes0.430.15 to 1.210.11
Received prednisolone
 No1.00
 Yes0.940.35 to 2.530.90
Cumulative prednisolone
 First quartile1.00
 Second quartile0.850.27 to 2.630.77
 Third quartile0.850.27 to 2.630.77
 Fourth quartile1.000.33 to 3.041.00
Received hydroxychloroquine
 No1.00
 Yes2.140.24 to 19.060.49
AMS
 <4
 ≥41.440.64 to 3.210.38
LLDAS
 No1
 Yes0.970.40 to 2.320.94
Flare
 No1
 Yes0.670.15 to 2.980.60
Baseline SDI
 01.00
 >04.341.80 to 10.48<0.013.361.32 to 8.590.01
Change in SDI
 01.00
 >02.341.02 to 5.360.041.930.77 to 4.870.16
  • AMS, time-adjusted mean Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000; LLDAS, lupus low disease activity state; MetS, metabolic syndrome; SDI, Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Disease Index.;