Table 3

HR for risk of incident CV events and death in patients with SLE and controls

SLEControlsSLE vs controls
Total patients, n99109
Total events, n124
HR (95% CI)P valueHR (95% CI)P valueHR (95% CI)P value
Age1.07 (1.01 to 1.13)0.0231.01 (0.93 to 1.09)0.8583.75 (1.21 to 11.6)0.022*
Female gender0.73 (0.16 to 3.34)0.6870.31 (0.03 to 2.96)0.3073.39 (1.09 to 10.5)0.035*
CRP1.02 (0.95 to 1.09)0.6741.06 (0.78 to 1.44)0.7113.28 (1.03 to 10.5)0.045*
ESR1.01 (0.98 to 1.05)0.4131.02 (0.93 to 1.12)0.6552.86 (0.85 to 9.6)0.089
Total cholesterol0.87 (0.51 to 1.46)0.5901.19 (0.45 to 3.15)0.7273.44 (1.11 to 10.7)0.032*
LDL-cholesterol0.71 (0.35 to 1.48)0.3631.45 (0.45 to 4.71)0.5373.36 (1.08 to 10.5)0.037*
HDL-cholesterol0.63 (0.18 to 2.29)0.4860.39 (0.03 to 4.97)0.4693.34 (1.08 to 10.4)0.037*
Triglycerides2.08 (1.14 to 3.80)0.0161.87 (0.30 to 11.6)0.5022.76 (0.86 to 8.82)0.087
Smoking ever1.80 (0.54 to 6.0)0.3362.61 (0.27 to 25.1)0.4063.5 (1.13 to 10.6)0.030*
Hypertension1.89 (0.57 to 6.29)0.2971.02 (0.11 to 9.8)0.9873.03 (0.94 to 9.7)0.063
Diabetes mellitus5.40 (1.18 to 24.7)0.03014.1 (1.46 to 137)0.0223.30 (1.06 to 10.2)0.039*
Dyslipidaemia1.43 (0.45 to 4.5)0.5441.67 (0.23 to 11.9)0.6083.53 (1.14 to 11.0)0.029*
BMI1.12 (0.99 to 1.27)0.0720.97 (0.77 to 1.22)0.7943.69 (1.18 to 11.5)0.025*
Waist circumference1.05 (1.01 to 1.09)0.0400.98 (0.90 to 1.07)0.6553.25 (1.05 to 10.1)0.041*
Family history of CV disease1.69 (0.51 to 5.61)0.3911.81 (0.26 to 12.9)0.5533.75 (1.20 to 11.7)0.023*
Mean cIMT1.006 (1.002 to 1.01)0.0031.003 (0.99 to 1.01)0.3894.05 (1.30 to 12.6)0.016*
Carotid plaque1.13 (0.36 to 3.55)0.8390.91 (0.09 to 8.67)0.9293.54 (1.13 to 11.04)0.030*
SLE disease-specific risk factors
 SLE duration1.03 (0.98 to 1.09)0.301NA
 SLEDAI1.04 (0.93 to 1.17)0.519
 SLICC1.71 (1.28 to 2.29)<0.001*
 APS7.72 (2.35 to 25.4)0.001*
 aPL antibodies1.75 (0.56 to 5.43)0.332
 Lupus nephritis1.05 (0.28 to 3.9)0.945
Current SLE medication
 ASA0.38 (0.05 to 2.96)0.357
 Anticoagulants3.21 (0.70 to 14.7)0.133
 Prednisolone1.97 (0.53 to 7.3)0.308
 Prednisolone current dose1.04 (0.91 to 1.19)0.588
SLE medication before inclusion
 DMARDs2.46 (0.74 to 8.18)0.141
 HCQ0.87 (0.19 to 3.97)0.858
 Cyclophosphamide and/or rituximab0.62 (0.14 to 2.82)0.534
 Prednisolone cumulative dose, g1.02 (1.0 to 1.05)0.071
 Prednisolone cumulative duration, year1.07 (1.0 to 1.15)0.059
 Prednisolone average dose, mg/day1.09 (0.92 to 1.29)0.316
  • Values are HR for adverse events based on the Cox regression analysis, presented per each risk factor in the SLE group and controls separately.

  • HRs for adverse events in the SLE group were compared with HRs in the controls at the similar level of each of the estimated risk factors.

  • *P value significant after additional adjustment for age and sex.

  • Anticoagulants: coumarin derivatives and low molecular weight heparin; aPL: anti-phospholipid antibodies (lupus anticoagulant, anti- cardiolipine oranti-β2- glycoproteine)

  • aPL, antiphospholipid; APS, antiphospholipid syndrome; ASA, low-dose aspirin; BMI, body mass index; cIMT, carotid intima-media thickness; CRP, C reactive protein; CV, cardiovascular; DMARDs, azathioprine, methotrexate, mycphenolate mofetil, cyclosporin; DMARDs, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; NA, not applicable; SLEDAI, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Diseases Activity Index; SLICC, Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Damage Index.