Table 1

Demographic and lupus characterisation of cohorts

All
(N=132)
HCQ
(n=108)
No HCQ
(n=24)
P valueHCQ RNA-seq
(n=41)
No HCQ RNA-seq
(n=8)
P value
Age, mean (SD)39.7 (12.9)39.4 (12.7)40.8 (14.2)0.6640.9 (12.2)44.9 (14.0)0.47
Female, n (%)128 (97.0)104 (96.3)24 (100)0.0441 (100)8 (100)1
Race, n (%)
Asian27 (20.5)25 (23.1)2 (8.3)0.0410 (24.4)1 (12.5)0.42
Black or African American41 (31.1)33 (30.6)8 (33.3)0.810 (24.4)0 (0)>0.01
White59 (44.7)46 (42.6)13 (54.2)0.3220 (48.8)6 (75.0)0.18
Other/unknown5 (3.7)4 (3.7)1 (4.2)11 (2.4)1 (12.5)0.33
Ethnicity, n (%)
Hispanic or Latino49 (37.1)37 (34.3)12 (50.0)0.1818 (43.9)5 (62.5)0.37
SELENA SLEDAI domains* (%)
Seizure0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)10 (0)0 (0)1
Psychosis0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)10 (0)0 (0)1
Organic brain syndrome0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)10 (0)0 (0)1
Visual disturbance0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)10 (0)0 (0)1
Cranial nerve disorder0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)10 (0)0 (0)1
Lupus headache0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)10 (0)0 (0)1
Cerebrovascular accident0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)10 (0)0 (0)1
Vasculitis0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)10 (0)0 (0)1
Arthritis2 (1.5)1 (1.0)1 (4.2)0.451 (2.4)1 (12.5)0.45
Myositis0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)10 (0)0 (0)1
Haematuria4 (3.3)2 (2.1)2 (8.7)0.292 (5.4)2 (25)0.28
Proteinuria29 (22.0)24 (23.8)5 (21.7)0.8412 (30.8)2 (25)0.76
Pyuria5 (3.8)5 (5.1)0 (0)0.023 (7.9)0 (0)0.08
Rash20 (15.2)15 (13.9)5 (20.8)0.457 (17.1)1 (12.5)0.75
Alopecia10 (7.6)7 (6.5)3 (12.5)0.424 (9.8)0 (0)0.04
Mucosal ulcers2 (1.5)1 (1)1 (4.2)0.450 (0)0 (0)1
Pleurisy2 (1.5)0 (02 (8.3)0.160 (0)0 (0)1
Pericarditis0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)10 (0)0 (0)1
Low complement54 (40.9)43 (41.7)11 (45.8)0.7221 (51.2)3 (37.5)0.51
Anti-dsDNA49 (37.1)39 (39.4)10 (45.5)0.6217 (43.6)4 (57.1)0.55
Fever0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)10 (0)0 (0)1
Thrombocytopaenia4 (3.0)2 (2.0)2 (8.7)0.282 (5.0)1 (12.5)0.58
Mean total SLEDAI (SD)3.58 (3.56)3.45 (3.47)4.09 (3.99)0.54.41 (4.32)5.29 (4.79)0.67
ACR criteria (%)
Malar rash67 (50.8)56 (51.9)11 (45.8)0.621 (51.2)5 (62.5)0.58
Discoid rash30 (22.7)23 (21.3)7 (29.2)0.4512 (29.3)3 (37.5)0.68
Photosensitivity49 (37.1)39 (36.1)10 (41.7)0.6310 (24.4)5 (62.5)0.08
Oral ulcers25 (19.1)18 (16.8)7 (29.2)0.233 (7.3)5 (62.5)0.02
Arthritis99 (75)80 (74.1)19 (79.2)0.5930 (73.2)6 (75)0.92
Pleuritis22 (16.7)16 (14.8)6 (25)0.39 (22)2 (25)0.87
Pericarditis24 (18.2)19 (17.6)5 (20.8)0.738 (19.5)2 (25)0.76
Proteinuria63 (47.7)52 (48.1)10 (41.7)0.8422 (53.7)3 (37.5)0.44
Seizures4 (3)3 (2.8)1 (4.2)0.761 (2.4)0 (0)0.32
Psychosis3 (2.3)2 (1.9)1 (4.2)0.60 (0)0 (0)1
Haemolytic anaemia8 (6.1)7 (6.5)1 (4.2)0.631 (2.4)0 (0)0.32
Leucopenia58 (43.9)49 (45.4)9 (37.5)0.4917 (41.5)2 (25)0.38
Lymphopaenia60 (45.5)51 (47.2)9 (37.5)0.3924 (58.5)2 (25)0.09
Thrombocytopaenia18 (13.6)14 (13)4 (16.7)0.666 (14.6)3 (37.5)0.26
Anti-dsDNA99 (75)80 (74.1)19 (79.2)0.5930 (73.2)6 (75)0.92
Anti-Smith53 (40.2)45 (41.7)8 (33.3)0.4520 (48.8)3 (37.5)0.58
Antiphospholipid29 (22)14 (13)6 (25)0.227 (17.1)1 (12.5)0.75
ANA123 (93.2)108 (100)24 (100)141 (100)8 (100)1
  • *Percentages and statistical testing were performed for each SLEDAI variable using the available denominator. SLEDAI values were available for >90% of patients.

  • ACR, American College of Rheumatology; anti-dsDNA, anti-double-stranded DNA; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; SLEDAI, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index.