Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics of the Hopkins Lupus Cohort analytical cohort (N=1168)

 N (%)
Women1085 (92.9)
 White643 (55.1)
 Black African Ancestry460 (39.4)
 Other65 (5.6)
History of seropositive status
 ANA+1075 (92.0)
 Anti-dsDNA+591 (50.6)
 ANA+ or anti-dsDNA+1093 (93.6)
Current smoker at cohort entry202 (17.3)
Past smoker at cohort entry465 (39.8)
Adjusted mean SELENA-SLEDAI <3 in background period641 (54.9)
SLE therapies* ever prescribed in observation period
 Oral prednisone (any dose)702 (60.1)
 Oral prednisone >7.5 mg/day428 (36.6)
 HCQ759 (65.0)
 NSAID447 (38.3)
 Immunosuppressants†262 (22.4)
Obesity in observation period (BMI >27.8 for men and BMI >27.3 for women)604 (51.7)
Hypertension in observation period (SBP ≥140 or DBP ≥90 mm Hg)652 (55.8)
Diabetes therapy with oral hypoglycaemic agent or insulin118 (10.1)
Median (range)
Age at cohort entry‡, years36 (11–77)
Age at SLE diagnosis§, years31(5–75)
Age at last assessment in follow-up period, years46 (20–85)
Adjusted mean SELENA-SLEDAI in background period3 (0–16)
Disease duration from SLE diagnosis to cohort entry, years2 (0–39)
Disease duration from SLE diagnosis to last assessment, years11 (2–48)
Follow-up time from cohort entry to last assessment, years7 (2–23)
  • *Categories not mutually exclusive.

  • †Leflunomide, mycophenolate, cyclophosphamide, tacrolimus, azathioprine, methotrexate or rituximab (biologic).

  • ‡Less than 2% of cohort enrolled <18 years of age.

  • §Less than 5% of cohort diagnosed with SLE <18 years of age.

  • ANA, antinuclear antibodies; BMI, body mass index in kg/m2; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; dsDNA, double-stranded DNA; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SELENA-SLEDAI, Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment-SLE Disease Activity Index; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus.