Table 2

Variables reflecting autonomic nervous system function in patients with SLE and healthy controls (HCs) matched by age and sex

SLE (n=54)HC (n=54)P value
HRV indices, median (IQR)*
 SDNN, ms28.3(21.1–37.9)36.7(28.5–53.4)0.019
 RMSSD, ms18.3(8.8–27.0)25.7(18.4–38.0)0.007
 LF, ms261.0(33.3–129)77.0(48.8–185)0.08
 HF, ms234.8(10.6–73.0)84.3(33.4–198)<0.001
 TP, ms2215(125-445)373(213-788)0.011
 LF/HF ratio2.05(1.03–3.94)1.02(0.44–2.37)0.001
CARTs, median (IQR)*
 RS ratio1.08(1.01–1.14)1.26(1.14–1.35)<0.001
 EI ratio1.15(1.09–1.28)1.22(1.11–1.32)0.042
 VM ratio1.45(1.24–1.60)1.63(1.47–1.80)<0.001
CAN stage, n (%)
 No CAN25(46.3)42(77.8)0.001
 Early CAN16(29.6)11(20.4)
 Definitive CAN13(24.1)1(1.9)
  • *Natural logarithm applied for parametric analyses. Values in bold are considered significant (p<0.05).

  • CAN, cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy; CARTs, cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests; EI, expiration/inspiration; HF, high frequency power; HRV, heart rate variability; LF, low frequency power; RMSSD, root mean square of successive differences between normal heartbeats; RS, response to standing; SDNN, SD of all NN intervals; TP, total power; VM, Valsalva manoeuvre.