Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics of study objects

Baseline characteristicsSubjects (n=16)Controls (n=10)
Gender n (%)
 Male1 (6.2)1 (10)
 Female15 (93.8)9 (90)
Age, mean±SD (range) (years)39.7±10.8 (23–56)33.4±10.9 (22–54)
 21–303 (18.75%)4 (40%)
 31–406 (37.5%)4 (40%)
 41–503 (18.75%)1 (10%)
 51–604 (25%)1 (10%)
Race/ethnicity, n (%)
 White5 (31.25)6 (60)
 African American5 (31.25)2 (20)
 Latino/Hispanic5 (31.25)2 (20)
 Other1 (6.25)0 (0)
SLE duration, mean±SD (range) (years)13.7±8.2 (3–33)
 ≤10 years8 (50%)
 >10 years8 (50%)
ACR criteria, mean±SD (range)6.7±2.1 (4–10)
Antimalarial use, n (%)15 (93.75)
Corticotropin/corticosteroid use, n (%)6 (37.5)
Immunosuppressant use, n (%)
 Azathioprine1 (6.25)
 Mycophenolate mofetil3 (18.75)
 Methotrexate5 (31.25)
 Leflunomide1 (6.25)
Biologic agent, n (%)
 Belimumab (Benlysta)1 (6.25)
 Rituximab (Rituxan)1 (6.25)
 Tofacitinib (Xeljanz)2 (12.5)
Haemoglobin, mean±SD (range) (g/dL)12.1±1.4 (8.7–14)
 Mild anaemia, n (%, range)3 (18.75, 8.7–10.5)
Isolated low C3 only, n (%)1 (6.25)
Isolated low C4 only, n (%)1 (6.25)
Isolated low C3 and C4, n (%)2 (12.5)
Positive anti-dsDNA antibodies8 (50%)
SLEDAI score, median (range)6.5 (4–22)
Lupus nephritis
 History, n (%)8 (50)
 Active, n (%)2 (12.5)
Total swollen joint, median (range)18 (6–28)
Raynaud’s phenomenon
 At enrolment, n (%)2 (12.5)
 History, n (%)1 (6.25)
 During evaluation, n (%)0 (0)
Vasoconstrictive or vasodilators, n (%)0 (0)
Smokers
 Active, n (%)4 (25)
 Former, n (%)3 (18.75)
 Never, n (%)9 (56.25)
Recreational drug use, n (%)0 (0)
Bilateral Jaccoud’s arthropathies, n (%)5 (31.25)
PIP osteoarthritis, n (%)0 (0)
  • ACR, American College of Rheumatology; dsDNA, double-stranded DNA; PIP, proximal interphalangeal; SLEDAI, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index.