Table 4

Competing risks analysis of the association between a hospitalisation for SLE with causes of death from 1980 to 2014

SLEHospital-based controlsAdjusted HR (95% CI)
n=2111n=21 110
Certain infectious and parasitic diseases (A00–B99)67 (3.2)128 (0.6)4.38 (3.15 to 6.09)
 Septicaemia48 (2.3)102 (0.5)3.95 (2.72 to 5.73)
 Influenza and/or pneumonia (J00–J18)49 (2.3)225 (1.1)2.16 (1.57 to 2.97)
Malignancy (C00–C97)121 (5.7)897 (4.2)0.94 (0.76 to 1.15)
 Digestive tract27 (1.3)263 (1.2)0.76 (0.50 to 1.15)
 Lung cancer28 (1.3)172 (0.8)1.27 (0.84 to 1.95)
 Lymphatic and hematopoietic tissues17 (0.8)76 (.4)1.91 (1.10 to 3.31)
 Breast12 (0.6)100 (0.5)0.71 (0.38 to 1.31)
 Skin cancer or melanoma4 (0.2)25 (0.1)1.07 (0.36 to 3.17)
 Central nervous system4 (0.2)31 (0.1)0.94 (0.32 to 2.78)
Benign neoplasms (D00–D49)8 (0.4)28 (0.1)2.54 (1.21 to 5.36)
Blood, blood-forming organs and/or immune related (D50–D89)44 (2.1)56 (.3)6.47 (4.28 to 9.77)
 Anaemias21 (1.0)33 (.2)5.83 (3.39 to 10.04)
Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases (E00–E90)72 (3.4)307 (1.5)1.67 (1.27 to 2.20)
 Diabetes41 (1.9)213 (1.0)1.20 (0.85 to 1.69)
Mental and behavioural disorders (F00–F99)39 (1.8)280 (1.3)1.42 (1.01 to 2.01)
 Substance abuse disorders13 (0.6)67 (0.3)1.74 (0.94 to 3.22)
 Intentional self-harm6 (0.3)11 (0.1)5.39 (1.90 to 15.28)
Diseases of the nervous system (G00–G99)38 (1.8)208 (1.0)1.75 (1.23 to 2.49)
 Dementia23 (1.1)278 (1.3)0.89 (0.57 to 1.37)
 Parkinson’s3 (.1)30 (.1)1.11 (0.33 to 3.80)
Cardiovascular disease (I00–I99)268 (12.7)1231 (5.8)2.09 (1.79 to 2.45)
 Congestive heart disease116 (5.5)604 (2.9)1.80 (1.45 to 2.23)
 Hypertensive disease71 (3.4)398 (1.9)1.78 (1.36 to 2.32)
 Heart failure64 (3.0)244 (1.2)2.47 (1.85 to 3.29)
 Cerebrovascular disease53 (2.5)349 (1.7)1.39 (1.03 to 1.87)
 Vascular disease35 (1.7)108 (0.5)2.64 (1.78 to 3.91)
 Arrhythmias19 (0.9)159 (0.8)1.12 (0.69 to 1.83)
Respiratory system (J00–J99)139 (6.6)571 (2.7)2.26 (1.85 to 2.76)
 Chronic pulmonary disease46 (2.2)225 (1.1)1.74 (1.26 to 2.40)
 Respiratory failure26 (1.2)106 (0.5)2.08 (1.33 to 3.25)
Diseases of the digestive system (K00–K93)57 (2.7)200 (0.9)2.27 (1.67 to 3.08)
 Chronic liver disease23 (1.1)58 (0.3)2.56 (1.53 to 4.29)
 Gastrointestinal bleeding7 (0.3)47 (0.2)1.31 (0.59 to 2.94)
Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous system (L00–L99)17 (0.8)22 (0.1)7.74 (3.93 to 15.25)
Musculoskeletal, connective tissue and subcutaneous diseases (M00–M99)168 (8.0)37 (0.2)
 SLE135 (6.4)0 (0.0)
Diseases of the genitourinary system (N00–N99)87 (4.1)227 (1.1)3.43 (2.64 to 4.46)
 Renal failure71 (3.4)186 (0.9)3.39 (2.54 to 4.51)
 Renal or urinary tract infection16 (0.8)31 (0.1)5.20 (2.85 to 9.50)
  • Competing risks Cox proportional HRs adjusted for age, sex, Aboriginality and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) categories (CCI=0, CCI=1–2 or CCI>2).