Table 1

Demographic and baseline characteristics

VariablesTotal (N=52)SLE with UTI (n=18)SLE without UTI (n=34)P value
Age (years), mean (SD)46.1 (12.7)43.5 (10.6)47.4 (13.7)0.296
Menstrual status, n (%)
 Non-menopausal19 (36.5)9 (50)10 (29.4)0.226
 Menopausal33 (63.5)9 (50)24 (70.6)
Cause of menopause, n (%)
 Natural menopause29 (87.9)7 (77.8)22 (91.7)0.555
 Treatment-associated4 (12.1)2 (22.2)2 (8.3)
Duration of menopause prior to enrolment, years, median (IQR)7 (4.5–15)7 (4.5–11.0)8 (2.8–16.5)0.254
Vaginal pH, median (IQR)5.5 (5–5.5)5.3 (5–5.5)5.5 (4.4–5.5)0.633
Coexisting conditions, n (%)
 None33 (63.5)10 (55.6)23 (67.6)
 Well-controlled diabetes4 (7.7)2 (11.1)2 (5.9)0.602
 Hypertension9 (17.3)2 (11.1)7 (20.6)0.47
 Hyperlipidaemia5 (9.6)2 (11.1)3 (8.8)1
 Myoma uteri3 (5.8)3 (16.7)0 (0)0.037
 Kidney transplantation1 (1.9)1 (5.6)0 (0)0.346
 HIV1 (1.9)0 (0)1 (2.9)1
Immunosuppressive drugs, n (%)
 Prednisolone44 (84.6)16 (88.9)28 (82.4)0.698
 HCQ39 (75)14 (77.8)25 (73.5)1
 Azathioprine28 (53.8)12 (66.7)16 (47.1)0.245
 Cyclophosphamide2 (3.8)0 (0)2 (5.9)0.538
 MTX6 (11.5)2 (11.1)4 (11.8)1
 MMF9 (17.3)2 (11.1)7 (20.6)0.47
 Ciclosporin A2 (3.8)1 (5.6)1 (2.9)1
 Tacrolimus3 (5.8)2 (11.1)1 (2.9)0.543
 Sulfasalazine1 (1.9)0 (0)1 (2.9)1
 Leflunomide5 (9.6)1 (5.6)4 (11.8)0.648
 Everolimus1 (1.9)1 (5.6)0 (0)0.346
Level of immunosuppression, n (%)
 High level3 (5.8)0 (0)3 (8.8)0.308
 Low level49 (94.2)18 (100)31 (91.2)
TMP-SMX prophylaxis, n (%)11 (21.2)9 (50)2 (5.9)<0.001
Acyclovir prophylaxis, n (%)18 (34.6)9 (50)9 (26.5)0.127
Vaginal microbiota, n (%)
Enterococcus spp19 (36.5)10 (55.6)9 (26.5)0.038
Peptostreptococcus spp22 (42.3)11 (61.1)11 (32.4)0.046
Veillonella dispar20 (38.5)11 (61.1)9 (26.5)0.015
  • HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; MMF, mycophenolate mofetil; MTX, methotrexate; TMP-SMX, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; UTI, urinary tract infection.