Table 1

Demographic and clinical features of patients with SLE and those with and without cognitive impairment

SLE (n=102)Cognitive impairment (n=47)Normal cognition (n=54)P value
Female, n (%)92 (90)43 (91)49 (91)
Age (years), mean±SD48.9±13.850.2±13.347.5±14.40.33
Race/ethnicity, n (%)
 Caucasian90 (88)41 (87)49 (91)0.47
 Other11 (10.8)6 (12.8)5 (11.8)
Years of education, mean±SD15.6±3.414.8±2.916.3±3.70.04
Current smokers, n (%)10 (9.8)7 (15)3 (6)0.12
Ever smokers, n (%)36 (35)22 (47)14 (26)0.03
Number of pack years5.1±10.27.1±11.03.4±9.10.02
SLE disease duration (years), mean±SD14.8±1116.9±12.412.6±9.00.11
Prior NP events (excluding cognitive impairment), n (%)57 (56)26 (55)31 (57)0.83
Prior NP events attributed to SLE (excluding cognitive impairment), n (%)22 (22)12 (26)10 (19)0.39
SLEDAI-2K score, mean±SD2.62±2.943.19±3.622.07±2.090.17
SLEDAI-2K score without NP variables, mean±SD2.62±2.943.19±3.622.07±2.090.17
SLICC/ACR Damage Index, mean±SD1.03±1.431.21±1.520.87±1.360.26
SLICC/ACR Damage Index without NP variables, mean±SD0.85±1.310.98±1.360.74±1.290.31
HADS depression score, mean±SD4.7±3.865.3±4.184.22±3.550.26
HADS anxiety score, mean±SD6.61±4.276.98±3.946.37±4.540.38
Medications, n (%)
 Corticosteroids9 (8.8)5 (10.6)4 (7.4)0.57
 Antimalarials77 (75.5)31 (66.0)46 (85.2)0.023
 Immunosuppressants45 (44.1)23 (48.9)21 (38.9)0.31
 ASA/clopidogrel12 (11.8)6 (13.0)6 (11.1)0.79
 Warfarin8 (7.9)6 (13.0)2 (3.7)0.86
 Psychoactive drugs41 (40.2)21 (44.7)20 (37.0)0.44
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Hypertension13 (12.7)7 (15)6 (11)0.57
 Diabetes5 (4.9)3 (6)2 (4)0.54
  • Bolded P values indicate statistically significant group differences between SLE patients with cognitive impairment and SLE patients with normal cognition.

  • ACR, American College of Rheumatology; ASA, Acetylsalicylic acid; HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; NP, neuropsychiatric; SLEDAI-2K, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index-2000; SLICC, Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics.