Table 2

Mixed-effects logistic regression analysis of biomarker levels*

BiomarkerP value
Rise in serum Cr
P value
Rise in R-SLEDAI
P value
New-onset proteinuria
  • Signficant values are bolded.

  • *Models included: institution, race, gender, time on study, ISN class, positive autoantibodies (RNP, phospholipid, Sm, dsDNA), casts, proteinuria, haematuria, pyuria, medications (methotrexate-oral, methotrexate-subcutaneous, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate, biologics, IVIG, rituximab, systemic corticosteroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories), Physicians Global Assessment (PGA), TWEAK, HER2, VCAM-1. Time on study, study site and PGA were the only components tested which were associated with both flare definitions. Time on study was not associated with new-onset proteinuria but PGA and study site were significantly associated. Age, race and autoantibodies had no association in any model. Female gender was associated with a rise in serum Cr (p=0.0034) but not the other outcomes.

  • Cr, creatinine; HER2, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2; IVIG, intravenous immunoglobulin; R-SLEDAI, renal Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index; TWEAK, tumour necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis; VCAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1.