Table 3

Sensitivity and specificity of biomarkers

BiomarkerFlare definitionSensitivitySpecificityPPVNPV
HER2R-SLEDAI24%77%69%32%
HER2Creatinine27%77%42%62%
TWEAKR-SLEDAI43%66%71%38%
TWEAKCreatinine40%66%43%63%
VCAM-1R-SLEDAI38%74%74%38%
VCAM-1Creatinine30%74%43%62%
All three biomarkersR-SLEDAI18%94%86%36%
All three biomarkersCreatinine20%94%67%65%
  • HER2, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2; NPV, negative predictive value; PPV, positive predictive value; R-SLEDAI, renal Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index; TWEAK, tumour necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis; VCAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1.