Table 1

Patients with SLE, characteristics in discovery and replication cohorts

Discovery (Sweden)Replication (multiethnic)
LN
(n=338)
SLE non-LN
(n=620)
P value†LN
(n=603)
SLE non-LN
(n=623)
P value†
Females, n (%)261 (77.2)565 (91.1)<0.01533 (88.4)583 (93.6)<0.01
Age at diagnosis, year (SD)*30.8 (15.4)38.8 (15.7)<0.0128.2 (11.8)34.9 (12.9)<0.01
SLE disease duration, year (SD)*17.1 (11.5)16.0 (12.1)0.199.6 (8.3)7.8 (8.3)0.18
Kidney biopsy (%)257 (76.0)171 (28.4)
Proliferative (%)153 (45.3)93 (15.4)
Pure membranous (%)41 (12.1)40 (6.6)
End-stage renal disease (%)35 (10.4)73 (12.1)
Hypertension (%)144 (42.6)151 (24.4)<0.01
Diabetes mellitus (%)9 (2.7)30 (4.8)0.086
  • *Mean, SD.

  • †Independent samples t-test. Data are presented as mean (SD) or n (%), unless otherwise indicated. Patients fulfilled at least 4 of 11 ACR criteria for SLE.15 LN was defined by the ACR renal criterion or renal biopsy. Proliferative LN was defined as WHO Class III/IV, and pure membranous by WHO Class V. ESRD was defined as patients who required renal replacement therapy, dialysis or transplantation. The non-LN group of patients with SLE was defined as patients not fulfilling the ACR renal criterion.

  • ACR, American College of Rheumatology; ESRD, end-stage renal disease; LN, lupus nephritis.