Table 1

Characteristics of the study population by ancestry and ACKR1 genotype (rs2814778)

CharacteristicsAll SLE (n=764)Patients with SLE of AA (n=190)
EA (n=574)AA (190)P value*ACKR1-CT/TT (n=57)ACKR1-CC (n=133)P value*
Age49.6 (38.0–61.4)38.8 (25.6–52.4)5.4E-1141.2 (27.1–56.3)38.4 (25.4–51.2)0.34
Female502 (87.5%)177 (93.2%)0.0354 (94.7%)123 (92.5%)0.80
Age at SLE diagnosis44.0 (32.0–56.0)34.0 (22.0–46.0)4.0E-1036.0 (23.0–48.0)33.0 (22.0–46.0)0.50
Lupus nephritis99 (17.2%)79 (41.6%)6.2E-1228 (49.1%)51 (38.3%)0.17
Positive ANA test476 (88.6%)160 (94.7%)0.0249 (94.2%)111 (94.9%)0.99*
Positive anti-dsDNA239 (45.4%)103 (58.9%)0.00233 (63.5%)70 (56.9%)0.42
Low C3 (<82 mg/dL)152 (30.8%)63 (40.1%)0.0316 (35.6%)47 (42.0%)0.46
Low C4 (<15 mg/dL)174 (36.2%)64 (42.4%)0.1719 (43.2%)45 (42.1%)0.90
Length of follow-up7.3 (3.6–11.3)5.0 (2.5–8.8)8.4E-56.1 (2.5–10.4)4.7 (2.5–8.4)0.47
Hydroxychloroquine512 (89.2%)162 (85.2%)0.1552 (91.2%)110 (82.7%)0.20
Azathioprine158 (27.5%)52 (27.4%)0.9714 (24.6%)38 (28.6%)0.57
Mycophenolate138 (24.0%)82 (43.2%)4.5E-723 (40.4%)59 (44.4%)0.61
Cyclophosphamide64 (11.1%)32 (16.8%)0.046 (10.5%)26 (19.5%)0.13
Ciclosporin11 (1.9%)9 (4.7%)0.07*4 (7.0%)5 (3.8%)0.55*
Rituximab26 (4.5%)16 (8.4%)0.046 (10.5%)10 (7.5%)0.69*
Belimumab28 (4.9%)12 (6.3%)0.442 (3.5%)10 (7.5%)0.47*
  • Data are shown as median (IQR) or number (per cent).

  • Antinuclear antobodies (ANA) results were not available in 37 EA and 21 AA (16 with ACKR1-CC); anti-dsDNA in 47 EA and 15 AA (10 with ACKR1-CC); C3 levels in 81 EA and 33 for AA (21 with ACKR1-CC); C4 levels for 93 EA and 39 AA (26 with ACKR1-CC).

  • *Comparisons were performed with Pearson Χ2 or Fisher’s exact test for categorical, and Wilcoxon sum-rank test for continuous variables.

  • AA, African ancestry; anti-dsDNA, anti-double-strand DNA; EA, European ancestry.