Table 1

Characteristics of subjects with SLE and HCs and KYN:TRP pathway metabolite ratios

Subject characteristicsSLE (N=72)HC (N=73)P value
Age (years), mean±SD (range)37.9±9.6 (22–57)36.2±9.5 (18–55)0.28
Ethnicity (Hispanic/Latino), n (%)13 (18.1)13 (17.8)0.97
Race, n (%)0.91
Black43 (59.7)41 (56.2)
White16 (22.2)18 (24.7)
Other13 (18.1)14 (19.2)
KYN:TRP ratio, median±IQR (range)0.04±0.03 (0.01–0.23)0.03±0.01 (0.01–0.13)<0.01
QA:KA ratio, median±IQR (range)18.4±14.7 (4.0–121.2)8.9±5.8 (2.9–45.9)<0.01
Disease duration, mean±SD (range)12.3±8.5 (1–38)n/an/a
SELENA SLEDAI score, mean±SD (range)5.4±5.1 (0–29)n/an/a
Prednisone dose (mg/day), median±SD (range)2.5±10.0 (0–75)n/an/a
Current hydroxychloroquine use, n (%)54 (75.0)n/an/a
Current immunosuppressant use, n (%)34 (47.2)n/an/a
Anti-dsDNA positive (>29 IU/mL), n (%)50 (69.4)n/an/a
C3 low (<81 mg/dL), n (%)28 (38.9)n/an/a
C4 low (<13 mg/dL)24 (33.3)n/an/a
  • All data are reported either as a mean (or median where indicated)±SD (or IQR), or as a frequency (%). All data refer to those which were collected at the time of evaluation.

  • HC, healthy control; KYN, kynurenine; n/a, not applicable; TRP, tryptophan.