Table 1

Participant characteristics

ParameterControls (n=28)SLE (n=23)P value
Age, years35 (26, 58)38 (31, 54)0.78
Sex (female), n (%)24 (86)20 (87)0.61
Race (African-American), n (%)6 (21)5 (22)0.52
BMI, kg/m222.7 (22.4, 23.9)26.2 (22.9, 31.7)0.16
SLEDAI, score*4 (2, 6)
SLICC, score0.5 (0, 1)
Corticosteroid use, n (%)1 (4)13 (57)<0.001
Statin use, n (%)3 (11)0 (0)0.2
Creatinine, mg/dL0.74 (0.65, 0.81)0.79 (0.63, 0.93)0.99
eGFR, mL/min99.7 (91.6, 110.6)104.3 (80.9, 115.2)0.80
History of hypertension, n (%)2 (7.1)8 (34.8)0.02
History of diabetes, n (%)0 (0)1 (2)0.45
Glucose, mg/dL90 (83, 96)88 (82, 97)0.74
Insulin, mIU/L7.5 (4.4, 14.9)8.3 (4.6, 16.7)0.64
HOMA-IR, units1.6 (0.9, 3.4)1.9 (1.0, 3.7)0.99
Total cholesterol, mg/dL241 (210, 277)208 (183, 244)0.01
LDL cholesterol, mg/dL127 (110, 166)105 (94, 127)0.01
HDL cholesterol, mg/dL75 (66, 87)62 (53, 72)0.004
Triglycerides, mg/dL73 (57, 103)73 (53, 120)0.78
Fatigue VAS, mm2 (0,5)49 (28, 63)<0.001
Walking distance, miles5.0 (3.0, 5.3)1.0 (0.1, 2.0)<0.001
  • Data were presented as median and IQRs or numbers and percentages.

  • *The SLEDAI score was missing for one of the patients.

  • BMI, body mass index; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HOMA-IR, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; SLEDAI, SLE Disease Activity Index; SLICC, Systemic Lupus Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index; VAS, visual analogue scale.