Table 3

Gut microbiota in patients with SLE

CountryCohort (W:M)Main results in patients with SLE compared with HCsReferences
Spain20 SLE (20:0) vs 20 HCs (20:0)↓ F:B ratio53
China45 SLE (45:0) vs 48 HCs (45:0)↓ F:B
Rhodococcus, Eggerthella, Klebsiella, Prevotella, Eubacterium and Flavonifractor
Dialister and Pseudobutyrivibrio
China92 SLE (NI) vs 217 HCs (NI)↑ Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria
↓ Firmicutes
Ruminococcus, Klebsiella, Erysipelotrichaceae (correlation of Ruminococcus with the Treg counts in peripheral blood)
↓ Faecalibacterium
USA16 SLE (16:0) vs 11 sex-matched HCs↓ F:B
Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron expressed anti-Ro60 antibodies
USA14 SLE (10:4) vs 17 sex-matched HCsNo difference in F:B
Proteobacteria and Blautia
↓ Odoribacter
Netherland30 SLE (28:2) vs 965 sex-matched HCs↓ Bacterial richness
↓ F:B
↑ Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroides, Alistipes, B. vulgatus, B. uniformis, B. ovatus and B. thetaiotaomicron
USA12 SLE (12:0) vs 22 HCs (12:0)↑ Lactobacillus spp47
USA61 SLE (61:0) vs 17 HCs (17:0)↓ Bacterial richness mostly in patients with higher SLEDAI
Ruminococcus gnavus, Lachnospiraceae, Veillonellaceae
Anti-RG antibodies related to disease activity and lupus nephritis
↑ Faecal calprotectin levels
China14 SLE (13:1) vs 16 HCs (14:2)Proteobacteria, Enterobacterlaceae, Streptococcus
↓ Ruminococcaceae, Prevotellaceae, Prevotella, Roseburia, Ezakiella
China40 SLE (40:0) (19 active and 21 remissive) vs 20 HCs (20:0)↓ F:B
Streptococacceae, Lactobacillaceae, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Megasphaera
↓ Faecalibacterium and Roseburia
Positive association of Streptococcus, Campylobacter and Veillonella with lupus activity
Negative association of Bifidobacterium with lupus disease activity
China21 SLE (21:0) vs 10 HCs (10:0)↑ F:B with ↓ Bacteroidetes
↑ Proteobacteria, Enterococcaceae, Escherichia_Shigella
Ruminococcaceae, Clostridia and Faecalibacterium
China17 SLE (17:0) vs 20 HCs (20:0)Positive correlation of Bacteroides, Bilophila, Parabacteroides and Succinivibrio with the levels of proinflammatory IL-17, IL-21, IL-2R, IL-35, IFN and IL-10
↓ Dialister, Gemmiger negatively correlated with IL-17, IL-2R and IL-35
↓ F:B
China117 SLE vs 115 HCs↑ Clostridium sp ATCC BAA-442, Atopobium rimae, Shuttleworthia satelles, Actinomyces massiliensis, Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium leptum
Odoribacter splanchnicus and Akkermansia muciniphhila were highly similar to Sm antigen, Fas antigen epitopes and autoantibodies production
China33 SLE vs 28 HCs↑ Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriales
France16 SLE vs 76 HCs↓ Tenericutes
↑ Alistipes, Flintibacter, Tannerellaceae, Parabacteroides and Alistipes onderdonkii
  • ↑, increased; ↓, decreased.

  • F:B, Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio; HC, healthy control; IFN, interferon; IL, interleukin; M, men; NI, no information (the sex of patients with SLE is not mentioned); RG, Ruminococcus gnavus; SLEDAI, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index; Sm, Smith; Treg, T regulatory cell; W, women.