Table 1

Demographic associations between survey language groups

VariableSurvey language groupP value
English survey (n=86)Spanish survey (n=65)
Age (years)33.0 (17.8)43.0 (8.5)<0.001*
(min=20, max=56)(min=18, max=53)
Education level<0.001*
 Less than high school5 (5.8%)22 (34.9%)
 High school diploma or equivalent44 (51.2%)31 (49.2%)
 Technical/vocational training17 (19.8%)8 (12.7%)
 Bachelor’s degree19 (22.1%)2 (3.2%)
 Master’s degree or above1 (1.2%)0
Marital status<0.001*
 Never married53 (64.6%)13 (22.0%)
 Married/in a domestic partnership22 (26.8%)32 (54.2%)
 Widowed1 (1.2%)1 (1.7%)
 Divorced or separated6 (7.3%)13 (22.0%)
Nativity (place of birth)<0.001*
 In the USA51 (59.3%)1 (1.6%)
 Outside of the USA35 (40.7%)63 (98.4%)
Sexual activity0.124
 Never sexually active with a male partner12 (14.5%)3 (4.9%)
 Have been sexually active with a male partner but not currently active30 (36.1%)16 (26.2%)
 Currently sexually active with a male and trying to get pregnant3 (3.6%)2 (3.3%)
 Currently sexually active with a male and trying to AVOID a pregnancy24 (28.9%)28 (45.9%)
 Currently sexually active with male and neither trying to get pregnant or avoid it14 (16.9%)12 (19.7%)
Methods of contraception
 Abstinence or not sexually active with male partner18 (20.9%)10 (15.4%)0.385
 Natural methods7 (8.1%)1 (1.5%)0.139
 Barriers or spermicidal methods18 (20.9%)8 (12.3%)0.165
 Short-acting birth control8 (9.3%)8 (12.3%)0.552
 Long-acting reversible birth control17 (19.8%)10 (15.4%)0.487
 Sterilisation5 (5.8%)4 (6.2%)0.999
 None—I do not use any contraception18 (20.9%)21 (32.3%)0.114
How many times have you been pregnant?1.0 (3.0)2.0 (1.0)<0.001*
(min=0, max=7)(min=0, max=20)
How many miscarriages have you had?0.0 (1.0)0.0 (1.0)0.611
(min=0, max=7)(min=0, max=2)
How many elective (also called medical or surgical abortions) have you had?0.0 (1.0)0.0 (0.0)0.044*
(min=0, max=7)(min=0, max=2)
Have had at least one miscarriage0.504
 No56 (69.1%)35 (63.6%)
 Yes25 (30.9%)20 (36.4%)
Have had at least one elective abortion0.046*
 No59 (73.8%)45 (88.2%)
 Yes21 (26.3%)6 (11.8%)
  • Numbers represent frequency (column percent) for categorical variables and median (IQR) for continuous.

  • *Significant at p<0.05.