Table 3

Crude and multivariable logistic regression analyses of the association between SLE and selected characteristics*

Crude OR
(95% CI)
Adjusted OR*
(95% CI)
Geographical area
 Northern Italy1.68 (1.11 to 2.55)1.73 (1.21 to 2.67)
 Central Italy1.65 (1.07 to 2.55)1.62 (1.03 to 2.54)
 Southern Italy and Islands1 (Ref)1 (Ref)
Comorbidities†
 Chronic kidney disease4.18 (1.79 to 9.81)3.88 (1.62 to 9.26)
 Chronic hepatic disease3.35 (1.54 to 7.27)2.93 (1.31 to 6.59)
 Osteoporosis1.86 (1.18 to 2.94)1.44 (0.89 to 2.33)
Concomitant autoimmune diseases
 Rheumatoid arthritis3.05 (1.38 to 6.76)2.55 (1.09 to 5.95)
 Sjogren’s syndrome9.65 (2.47 to 37.68)6.66 (1.63 to 27.29)
Concomitant therapies‡1.65 (1.19 to 2.27)1.47 (1.05 to 2.05)
  • SLE due to data absence.

  • *Adjusted by geographical area, chronic kidney disease, chronic hepatic disease, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren’s syndrome, concomitant therapies.

  • †Reference category: absence of disease.

  • ‡Five or more distinct medications; reference category: 0–4 distinct medications.

  • Ref, reference category.