Table 2

Perceived Stress Scale and Life Events Inventory and measures of positive (resilience, self-efficacy, emotional support) and negative (social isolation) psychosocial factors, by trauma history* in participants with SLE

OverallNo trauma historyTrauma historyP value†
 Perceived Stress Scale4.7±3.23.5±2.95.2±3.20.0001
 Life Events Inventory4.4±3.03.5±2.64.9±3.10.001
 Brief Resilient Coping Scale (range)8.4±1.9 (0–12)8.1±2.0 (0–12)8.5±1.9 (4–12)0.17
 PROMIS self-efficacy‡49.8±9.351.1±9.949.2±9.00.13
 PROMIS emotional support‡66.6±8.568.9±7.865.7±8.60.008
 PROMIS social isolation‡34.7±6.631.9±6.035.9±6.5<0.0001
  • *Trauma defined as perceived danger or threat to life according to Brief Trauma Questionnaire.

  • †P values from t-tests comparing scores of individuals with and without trauma history.

  • ‡PROMIS scales, reported as T-scores.

  • PROMIS, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System.