Table 3

Association of perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale) with stressful events (Life Events Inventory) and positive and negative psychosocial factors, by trauma history (Brief Trauma Questionnaire*), in models with and without adjustment in participants with SLE

Full sample (n=242)No trauma history (n=71)Trauma history (n=171)
Beta (95% CI)P valueBeta (95% CI)P valueBeta (95% CI)P value
Model 1
Life Events Inventory0.20 (0.07 to 0.33)0.003−0.08 (−0.35 to 0.19)0.550.22 (0.07 to 0.37)0.005
 Model R20.040.010.04
Model 2
Life Events Inventory0.14 (0.03 to 0.24)0.010−0.01 (−0.20 to 0.18)0.910.16 (0.04 to 0.29)0.01
Positive psychosocial factor score†−0.68 (−0.95 to −0.41)<0.001−0.81 (−1.21 to −0.40)<0.001−0.63 (−0.98 to −0.28)<0.001
PROMIS social isolation0.23 (0.17 to 0.29)<0.0010.22 (0.13 to 0.31)<0.0010.22 (0.15 to 0.29)<0.001
 Model R20.480.540.44
Model 3
Life Events Inventory0.14 (0.04 to 0.24)0.0063−0.03 (−0.16 to 0.22)0.780.17 (0.05 to 0.29)0.0077
Positive psychosocial factor score†−0.67 (−0.94 to −0.40)<0.0001−0.68 (−1.16 to to 0.20)0.002−0.63 (−0.97 to −0.29)0.0003
PROMIS social isolation0.20 (0.14 to 0.25)<0.00010.18 (0.09 to 0.28)0.00040.19 (0.11 to 0.26)<0.0001
 Model R20.560.670.54
  • Model 1: includes Life Events Inventory only. Model 2: includes Life Events Inventory, positive psychosocial factor score and PROMIS social isolation T-score. Model 3: includes Life Events Inventory; positive psychosocial factor score; PROMIS social isolation T-score and age, gender, disease duration and education ≤high school, income ≤125% of the US federal poverty level, race and ethnicity, number of comorbidities, BILD score ≥2, glucocorticoid use (≥7.5 mg/day) and PHQ score ≥10.

  • *Trauma defined as perceived danger or threat to life.

  • †First eigenvalue from principal component analysis of resilience, emotional support and self-efficacy scores.

  • BILD, Brief Index of Lupus Damage; PHQ, Patient Health Questionnaire; PROMIS, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System.