Table 1

Characteristics of study participants with SLE, by trauma history*

CharacteristicOverallNo trauma historyTrauma historyP value
(N=242)(N=71)(N=171)
Sociodemographic factor% (N) unless specified
 Age, mean±SD49.4±13.446.2±13.750.7±13.10.02
 Women90.1 (218)88.7 (63)90.6 (155)0.64
 Race and ethnicity0.125
  White33.9 (82)25.4 (18)37.4 (64)
  Asian30.6 (74)36.6 (26)28.1 (48)
  Hispanic24.0 (58)29.6 (21)21.6 (37)
  African-American9.1 (22)8.5 (6)9.4 (16)
  Unspecified/Other2.5 (6)03.5 (6)
 High school education or less15.3 (37)19.7 (14)13.5 (23)0.22
 Household income†0.64
 Poverty income11.9 (27)13.4 (9)11.3 (18)
SLE-specific characteristic
 SLE disease duration, years, mean±SD22.2±10.720.2±10.923.0±10.50.07
 Paediatric onset disease (diagnosis <18 years)18.6 (45)22.5 (16)17.0 (29)0.31
 Self-report disease damage by BILD, score ≥247.5 (115)38.0 (27)51.5 (88)0.06
 Glucocorticoid use (≥7.5 mg/day)13.2 (32)11.3 (8)14.0 (24)0.68
  • Tabled values are % (n) unless otherwise noted. P values calculated using χ2 tests for categorical measures and t-tests for continuous measures. Racial and ethnic groups are mutually exclusive, that is, white, Asian and African-American participants were non-Hispanic.

  • *Trauma defined as perceived danger or threat to life according to Brief Trauma Questionnaire.

  • †Poverty income defined as ≤125% of the US federal poverty level.

  • BILD, Brief Index of Lupus Damage.